Diseases of the joints in the human body, there arise in the midst of degenerative changes, they take a common name – arthrosis. Can be of different origins, but they all have similar mechanisms of development. However, depending on what part of the locomotor system is involved in a pathological process, is a disease that has its own name. If the disease develops in the knee joint, which bears the name of knee osteoarthritis, that is to say, of osteoarthritis of the knee. To preserve knee function, and prevent disability, when it runs the form of the disease needs hospitalization and treatment. And in the debut of the disease in the initial state of the symptoms the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee with the use of medications, massage and other techniques can be successful, and in the home.
What is osteoarthritis of the knee, and the mechanism of development
Knee osteoarthritis is osteoarthritis (oa) of the knee joints, quite common in the medical practice of the disease, especially in patients older than 40 years.
The anatomical structure of the knee a little more difficult than the rest of the joints. He is not covered by muscles and makes the movement in a plane, and your healthy biomechanics is very dependent on the functional status of the hip and the ankle.
Osteoarthritis of the knee, is accomplished by the destruction of cartilage that covers the surface of the sustainableuse of the bones of the knee.
The joint deforms, alters its function. The patient feels pain in the knees, you have trouble walking.
According to the statistics of women who suffer from this disease more often than men. And especially attentive to the signs of the evolution of the disease must be ladies, have overweight and the propensity to varicose expansion of veins.
The causes of the pathology it is
Distinguish two forms of osteoarthritis of the knee: primary and secondary.
Primary begins its development early enough in childhood or early adulthood.
The cause of this pathology is served malformations ligamentous apparatus, or of their articular surfaces. Therefore, it disturbs the biomechanics of the authority, and during the movement, is subjected to a disproportionate amount of their load capacities. This leads to degenerative changes in the knees of both legs.
The secondary. This form of osteoarthritis is the result of other diseases or injuries of the knee. Degenerative processes that can affect both knees or only one of them.
The main causes of the onset of secondary osteoarthritis of the knee are:
- fractures of the bones of the lower extremities, contusions and sprains of the knee, which is accompanied by an injury of the cartilage tissue of a joint or ligament;
- flat feet, causing displacement of the center of gravity of the body and improves the load on the legs;
- the prompt removal of the meniscus, which leads to a fast wear and tear of all the structures of the knee;
- the disease of the blood vessels of the lower extremities that affects the power supply to the cartilage tissues;
- too high physical loads, which are characteristic for athletes;
- violations of the processes of change in the body and the excess weight;
- the arthritis, especially if the course of the disease is accompanied by abundant formation of fluid in the cavity joint with guided;
- the hereditary factors.
The degree and symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee
All the cunning gonartrosisy is that this disease develops slowly and, to the east, in the first stage – practically asymptomatic. For months, or even years, the patient can and not suspect the disease, only occasionally complaining of feeling discomfort in the knees.
The initial phase of osteoarthritis of the knee does feel negligible pain when the first morning steps, when driving down the stairs, to the more important classes of physical education. No external changes in the configuration of the knee in this case.
When it occurs the second phase of the development of the disease, the pain become more pronounced occur in any movement, and accompanied by a clear crack. The cavity of the knee joint is inflamed, it is used to form the liquid. During the inspection, and palpation becomes evident begins the deformation of the authority. The amount of movements in it is reduced.
For the third stage of gonartrosisy is a characteristic pain syndrome that does not pass even when there is no movement. Many patients complain that the increase in pain before the time of the changes. The joints of the knee patients that are here in this stage of development of the disease, almost lost the motor function.
The deformation of the knees is made explicit, the legs of the patient take Over-figurative or X in the form of i. Varies the gait.
The symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee, which develops in the background of the injury, is manifest faster. The knee swells, appear constant in the sensation of pain, which are intensified after active exercise. Later it produces a sensation of stiffness in the joint. When post-traumatic form of the disease the first signs from before the big changes can happen just a few months.
A diagnostic test
The diagnosis of the disease is based on the analysis of the patient's complaints, their individual risk factors, clinical symptoms and results of instrumental.
The most simple and inexpensive method of obtaining information, company truthful information about the state of the joint is of diagnostic x-rays. It takes place, as a minimum, in two projections: the direct and lateral. The photographs allow for the identification of the degree of the injury, the cartilage and bone of the joint surfaces.
In the ultrasound of the knee joint gives the possibility to analyze the amount and state of the fluid in the cavity joint, with guidance, to assess the condition of the soft tissues – vessels, ligaments, muscles.
The magnetic resonance imaging mri and ct scan give a greater volume of information. Allow you to create a detailed three-dimensional model of the organ.
Conservative therapy of osteoarthritis in the home
Depending on the stage of the disease and the severity of the defeat of the authority, the health care provider is an individual treatment plan for each patient. Osteoarthritis is always requires a systematic approach to the treatment!!!
In the second and third stage of development of the disease cure for osteoarthritis it is completely impossible, but the good results of the treatment can achieve a durable remission, when the manifestation of the pathology is not exist or are minimal.
In the initial phase of the most complete healing, if it is diagnosed correctly the cause of the osteoarthritis and there is the possibility of resolving the problem of the national liberation of a patient's excess weight, for example).
The treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee, pursues the following objectives:
- the elimination of the pain syndrome;
- the maximum recovery of the victim of cartilage and ligamentous apparatus.
- the increase of the amount of motion in the knee joint.
And to do this it must implement all the complex of therapeutic measures.
Medications treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee
Initially, you must provide the state of the patient, reducing pain, and inflammation. This task well-not anti-inflammatory drugs of the last generation. These drugs have important advantages in comparison with their predecessors, the side effect is dehydration in the cartilage tissue, which encouraging its further destruction. By reducing the inflammation and pain, nsaids new generation will not have a harmful effect on the cartilage, shaving the surface joint with guided. But for a long time should be used with caution and only under the prescription of a doctor.
Quickly in the home to alleviate the pain, reduce inflammation, help to compress the solution Dimexidum with novocaine and hydrocortisone.
Quite often when knee osteoarthritis to relieve pain and inflammation in the joint cavity is introduced hormonal drugs. Also funds are allocated for relaxing the muscles and remove the vascular spasms, improve the circulation of the blood.
After the removal of the acute inflammatory process in the period of remission is very well-established guided intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid, which acts as a natural joint fluid. Envelope warping of the surface, protects and penetrating into the interior of the cartilage, improving its elasticity and flexibility.
In the comprehensive plan of the medication therapy osteoarthritis knee patient necessarily recorded chondroprotectors for the recovery of cartilage in the form of ointments, pills, injections.
The main components of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate – are necessary to the body for stimulating the synthesis of joint fluid, improve its lubricant properties, regeneration of the cartilage.
Therapeutic exercise and massage
The massage of the exposure, and gymnastics as a means to reduce pain, relax clips and muscle spasms around the affected knee, improve blood flow and nutrition to joint tissues, adjust the position of the bones, increase the amount of movements.
Power of osteoarthritis of the knee
An important element in the treatment of osteoarthritis is the diet.
People who have excess weight, make sure to get rid of the extra kilos.
Scientists believe that half of the intensity of painful sensations and to improve significantly the mobility of the knee joints with osteoarthritis can, if you reset only the 10% of excess weight. The person has to review your diet and give up some products, in particular acute, smoked and marinated products, fatty, types of meat and alcohol.
The greater part of the letter should be from vegetables or steam of the kitchen from them. Of the meat product costs more often to cook the jelly, as this dish contains collagen and elastin, the cells in the cartilage tissue for the recovery of normalcy in their structures. It must increase the consumption of foods with calcium content. For your information, the calcium in large amounts is present in large amount in the requesn, dairy products solids, cheese, milk, and sesame. Particularly useful are the dishes that contain gelatin: neck, fish, desserts, jelly. In the gelatin much chondroprotectors needed to strengthen the cartilage and preventing its traumatic and thinning.
The use of a medical pad of the knee osteoarthritis of the knee helps to cut off the pain syndrome in acute period and to recover the mobility of the joint. The effect is achieved by the direct reduction of the load on the affected joint. Bandage helps to restore the circulation of the blood in the tissues, and the nutrition of the cartilage.
Popular methods of treatment
The use of methods of traditional medicine is possible only as an adjunct to therapy. Is allowed with the permission of your doctor and can give an effect to the osteoarthritis grade 1 and in the initial phase of the oa of 2 degrees.
The infusion of nettle, garlic and lemon juice. To prepare the drink must:
- mix 100 g of nettle leaves with three cleaned up of the heads of garlic;
- skip the mixture through a meat grinder;
- add 4 tablespoons of fresh lemon juice;
- mix well, add 250 ml of boiling water and cover with the lid;
- insist on the time limit of 4 hours.
Ready-to-drink is ingested orally in an amount of 50 ml for 20-30 minutes before eating. In the first week of the infusion should be taken 1 time a day, in the following 8-14 days 2 times a day. After fifteen days, the number of receptions of the need to expand to 3 times a day. The long-term treatment, not less than 2 months.
The tincture of roots lapchatki and cinquefoil. The mixture of the roots it is necessary to pour the vodka in a ratio of 2 to 1. To insist tool must, within the period of 3 weeks in a dark place. Finished tincture, take 1 tablespoon before each meal.
Vodka infusion of gold to the united States. To prepare the dye 15 the kolentsi gold united States filled with 0.5 liters of vodka and insist in the term of a half moon. The finished tincture is taken also for 1 tablespoon before eating 3-4 times a day.
Toilet, bath with the teeth of a lion. To prepare the bath is used the tincture of the roots of the teeth of a lion. For cooking, you need 120 g of flaked crushed dandelion mixed with 150 ml of vodka and insist in a dark place during the day. Prepared infusion is poured into a container of warm water, mix, placed on her knees.
Ok as the bath is recommended 1-2 times a week. You can use this solution for the compress. After the procedure, the knee pain becomes less, and the mobility of the joints improves. The effectiveness of the treatment will be higher, if you add in the water 150 g sea salt enriched with iodine and bromine.
The surgical treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee
Is displayed when irreversible injury of the joint and involves the placement of the prosthesis – implant of a metal prosthesis in place of the reconstruction of the authority.